Jun 28, 2020
Legendary period King De Minh marries a mountain fairy. Their offspring, Kinh Duong, marries the daughter of the Dragon Lord of the Sea. Their son, Lac Long Quan or ‘Dragon Lord of Lac’, is regarded as the first Vietnamese king.

258BC Thuc Pan, ruler of Au Viet, establishes a new Vietnamese state, Au Lac, with its capital at Co Loa near present-day Hanoi.

207BC Trieu Da, a renegade Chinese general, conquers Au Lac and rules over Nam Viet, a state based on southern China and northern Vietnam.

111BC Chinese dominion over Vietnam is confirmed when the heirs of Trieu Da submit to the Han emperor Wu-Ti, establishing Chinese rule as far south as the Hai Van Pass.

1 st century AD Attempts made to Sinicise the inhabitants of Giao Chau provoke widespread hostility among the Viets.

40AD The Trung Sisters lead a rebellion against the Chinese. Three years later, a powerful Han army under General Ma Vien re-establishes Chinese control: the Trung sisters are martyred and Sinicisation is resumed.

43-938 Period of Chinese occupation.

544 Revolt led by Viet scholar Ly Bon results in setting up of Early Ly Dynasty (544-602).
603 Chinese re-establish control over Vietnam which they rename An Nam. Chinese rule remains secure under the Tang Dynasty (618-907).

938 General Ngo Quyen defeats the Chinese at the Bach Dang River and reasserts Vietnamese independence after 1,000 years of Chinese domination.

939-67 Ngo Dynasty.

968-80 Dinh Dynasty.

979 Throne usurped by Le Dai Hanh, founder of the Early Le Dynasty (980- 1009). Viet forces begin attacks on the Indianised state of Champa to the south.

1009-1225 Ly Dynasty.

1225-1400 Tran Dynasty.

1400-27 Ho Dynasty.

1428—1776 Le Dynasty.

1516 Portuguese seafarers arrive.

1527 Mac Dang Dung seizes power in Hanoi. Rival Trinh and Nguyen Lords establish themselves further south.

1539—1787 Trinh Lords dominate the north, taking Hanoi from Macs in 1592. Nguyen Lords dominate the south.

1680—1757 Vietnamese southern expansion continues. Mekong Delta (including Prey Nokor, later Saigon) taken from Cambodia.

1776-92 Tay Son Rising.

1792-1883 Nguyen Dynasty.

1832 Last vestiges of Champa kingdom extinguished by Minh Mang.

1858-9 France seizes Danang and Saigon.

1865 Cochinchina declared a French colony.

1883 France establishes a protectorate over Annam and Tonkin.

1887 France creates the Indochinese Union of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

1890 Birth of Ho Chi Minh near Vinh.

1918 Ho Chi Minh travels to Paris, joins the French Communist Party in 1920.

1930 Ho Chi Minh forms the Indochinese Communist Party in Hong Kong.

1940 In September, Japan occupies Indochina but leaves the French colonial administration intact.

1941 Ho Chi Minh returns secretly to Vietnam and forms the Vietminh to fight for independence.

1945 Japan takes over French administration, Emperor Bao Dai proclaims independence under Japanese auspices, Japan capitulates, Bao Dai abdicates, Ho Chi Minh declares independence.

1946 First Indochina War begins as the French seek to re-impose their rule.

1954 France suffers crushing defeat at Dien Bien Phu. Vietnam divided at 17th Parallel pending elections. North, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, led by Ho Chi Minh. South, the Republic of Vietnam, under Ngo Dinh Diem.

1955 Diem refuses to hold elections. Viet Minh launched the Second Indochina War in the South.

1960 North Vietnam introduces conscription. First US advisers arrive in the South.

1965 President Johnson starts to bomb North; first US combat troops land at Danang in the South.

1968 US troop strength rises to 540,000, but Tet Offensive saps morale.

1969 Ho Chi Minh dies; the US begins phased withdrawal of troops.

1973 Washington and Hanoi sign a ceasefire.

1975 NVA capture Saigon. Vietnam reunified. The US imposes trade embargo.

1976 Socialist Republic of Vietnam is declared. The Communist regime in Cambodia begins territorial aggression.

1978 Cambodian troops cross-border attacks into southern Vietnam result in the Ba Chuc massacre, leaving 2,000 Vietnamese civilians dead. Vietnam responds by invading Cambodia and the government of Pol Pot is overthrown.

1979 China retaliates by invading Vietnam. They withdraw after 17 days.

1986 Start of doi moi socio-economic reforms.

1994 US trade embargo lifted. A year later, Vietnam joins ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).

1995 Vietnam and US restore full diplomatic relations.

1997 Economic reforms stall and foreign investors take flight.

2001 US and Vietnam implement an agreement normalizing trade relations.

2002 President Tran Duc Luong and Prime Minister Phan Van Khai reappointed for second terms. The Vietnamese economy continues to improve.

2005 A historic visit by PM Phan to US and Canada to encourage trade.
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